Poultry Diseases Cause, Diagnosis, Control & Treatment

_~1MYQ_HLOSC0T$I2D2K`ZRPoultry Diseases Cause, Diagnosis, Control & Treatment
1. Prevention & Control of Poultry Diseases for Better Profitability
2. Module ObjectivesModule Objectives By the end of this session all participants will be able to:  Identify the threats to our poultry and how disease agents h l fmight enter a poultry farm  Identify the costs of diseases and their prevention  Define the three principles of biosecurity:  Segregation & Traffic control Cl i Cleaning  Disinfection  Identify biosecurity risks present in a poultry farm Identify biosecurity risks present in a poultry farm
3. Exercise:  The questions! 1. How a disease can enter a poultry farm ? 2 What are the costs involved in a disease outbreak ?2. What are the costs involved in a disease outbreak ? 3. How can we prevent and control a disease outbreak ? 4 What are the costs involved in disease prevention ?4. What are the costs involved in disease prevention ?  In your group discuss what do you know about the question  Record your key points on the flipchart  Be prepared to present your answer to the groupBe prepared to present your answer to the group  Take about 10 minutes to complete this task
4. What are the threats to poultry farms?
5. The diseases caused by:The diseases caused by:The diseases caused by:The diseases caused by: Vi Viruses (Newcastle Disease, Gumboro, Avian Influenza, Duck plague)  Bacteria (Fowl Cholera, Salmonella, Mycoplasma, E. Coli, Rimerella anatipestifer)  Fungi (Aspargilosis, Mould, Mycotoxins)  Protozoa and Parasites (Coccidiosis, Intestinal Worms, lice & mites) Which diseases do you see at your farm?
6. HOW DISEASES MIGHT ENTR POULTRY FARMSHOW DISEASES MIGHT ENTR POULTRY FARMS Poultry Farm Sick birds or Carcasses of Infected Birds People through Footwear & Clothing Contaminated Feed Bags Egg Flats Litter material Contaminated Vehicles & Equipment. Impure Feed water air DOC Infected in the hatchery or from breeders Wild birds Pests Rodents Flies, Stray Animals
7. The infection pressure in relation to:The infection pressure in relation to: Regional density Farm density Poor sanitation Poor managementPoor sanitation Poor management Multi-age productionLimited downtime Other species on farmConcurrent diseases Q
8. The costs of diseases :The costs of diseases :The costs of diseases :The costs of diseases :  Poultry mortalities Poultry mortalities less eggs (less hatchability)  Low production performances less meatLow production performances less meat slow growth rate poor FCR d t litpoor product quality  Financial losses to farmersFinancial losses to farmers Due to: – mortalities – low performance – medication – decontamination  Human infection and death = zoonosis (in case of Salmonella HPAI) Human infection and death = zoonosis (in case of Salmonella, HPAI) Q
9. How you can prevent and control diseases In decreased order of efficacyIn decreased order of efficacy 1. Implementing Biosecurity 2. Vaccination program 3. Medication Often we use these three in varies combination Remember! – Prevention is always cheaper than cure Q
10. What are the costs of disease prevention & controlWhat are the costs of disease prevention & control Y h ld i t iY h ld i t iYou should invest in:You should invest in: Better HousingBetter Housing ++ EquipmentEquipment But the most important investment should be in:But the most important investment should be in: TrainingTraining ++ EducationEducationTrainingTraining EducationEducation Of yourself and your employees about risk reductionOf yourself and your employees about risk reductionOf yourself and your employees about risk reductionOf yourself and your employees about risk reduction behaviours and changing procedures at the farm
11. l b illayers broilers Cost: $/doz eggs $/Kg Cost of disease Treatment 0.003 0.002 Lost production 0.020 0.030 vaccination 0.002 0.020vaccination 0.002 0.020 Tot: 0.025 0.054 Cost of preventionCost of prevention Procedures & education Better Housing & equipment Tot: 0.019 0.016 USA Data
12. Small commercial producersSmall commercial producers what are the issues ?  Limited resources (money/people/time)Limited resources (money/people/time)  High risk because many movementsHigh risk because many movements  Housing – may not be purpose builtHousing may not be purpose built – not owned by the producer (rented)  Limited technical knowledge and access to information
13. What is Biosecurity PlanWhat is Biosecurity Plan Biosecurity plan is a set of practices designed to prevent the entry and spread of infectious diseases into and from a poultry farm.y Biosecurity requires the adoption of a set of attitudesBiosecurity requires the adoption of a set of attitudes and behaviours by people, to reduce risk in all activities involving poultry production and marketingactivities involving poultry production and marketing.
14. Biosecurity plan should focus onBiosecurity plan should focus on Preventing disease agents from entering the farm By keeping potentially infected animals andBy keeping potentially infected animals and contaminated objects away from healthy poultry. This requires formation of barriers – Physical and/or – Conceptualp
15. DIRTY AREADIRTY AREA CLEAN HOUSE AREACLEAN HOUSE AREACLEAN FARM AREA BUFFER AREA = BARRIERSBUFFER AREA = BARRIERS
16. Quiz Time 11 Biosecurity is the most effective and the cheapest way to protect yourBiosecurity is the most effective and the cheapest way to protect your1.1. Biosecurity is the most effective and the cheapest way to protect yourBiosecurity is the most effective and the cheapest way to protect your chickens.chickens. a. true or b. falsea. true or b. false 2. Which elements are the most important for disease’s prevention?2. Which elements are the most important for disease’s prevention? a housing and equipmenta housing and equipmenta. housing and equipmenta. housing and equipment b. training and educationb. training and education 3. What is it the buffer area?3. What is it the buffer area? a. clean areaa. clean area b. dirty areab. dirty area c. protective area around the farm created by a wide range ofc. protective area around the farm created by a wide range of proceduresproceduresproceduresprocedures
17. Exercise: 1 Wh t th i it t th d h lth d The question! 1. What are the prerequisites to ensure the good health and maintenance of poultry on farm? 2 What is segregation and traffic control and how to achieve2. What is segregation and traffic control and how to achieve it on a farm? 3 Wh t i l i d h t hi it f ?3. What is cleaning and how to achieve it on a farm? 4. What is disinfection and how to achieve it on a farm?  In your group discuss what do you know about the question Record your key points on the flipchart Record your key points on the flipchart  Be prepared to present your answer to the group  Take about 10 minutes to complete this task
18. The 3 elements of biosecurityThe 3 elements of biosecurity S & ff CS & ff CA. Segregation & Traffic ControlA. Segregation & Traffic Control The most effective form of biosecurityThe most effective form of biosecurity prevent contaminationprevent contaminationprevent contaminationprevent contamination B. CleaningB. Cleaninggg The next most effective stepThe next most effective step — when all dirt is removedwhen all dirt is removed remove most (80%) contaminationremove most (80%) contamination C. DisinfectionC. Disinfection TTh l t li bl t d d th lit f l iTThe least reliable step – depends on the quality of cleaning might kill any remaining contaminationkill any remaining contamination Q
19. Prerequisite: Good bird management ensuring the goodg g g health and maintenance of poultry on farm  Provide adequate feed, water, temperature, airflowProvide adequate feed, water, temperature, airflow K d f th fl k Keep records of the flock :  source and number of birds being placed in the farm  how many birds died or culled each day (in number and %)  daily feed consumption (in tot and in grs/bird)  daily water consumption (in Liters)  vaccinations, medications, vitamins Do you keep any records at your farm? Q
20. A. Segregation & Traffic Control The strongest form of biosecurity and where all effort should be placed !!! Preventing disease agents from entering the farm by keeping potentially infected animals and contaminated objects such as clothing footwear vehicles equipmentobjects such as clothing, footwear, vehicles, equipment, etc, away from healthy poultry. This requires formation of barriers,q , Nothing crosses these barriers unless it has to. The barriers can be: • physical – lock on doors, fence & gate, distance • temporal – time break in between farms’ visits • procedural washing hands and feet• procedural – washing hands and feet, changing footwear and outer clothes, vehicles kept off the farmp
21. Barriers in descending order of efficacyBarriers in descending order of efficacy 1. Locks + Chains Prevent unauthorized people fromPrevent unauthorized people from entering into the chicken house,entering into the chicken house,entering into the chicken house,entering into the chicken house, risking the transmission of diseasesrisking the transmission of diseases
22. 2. Screened walls and windows fishnet – in use in Thailand Prevent contact of poultry inside the chicken house with wild and domestic animals and birds from the outside
23. 3 Strict procedures for farm entry3. Strict procedures – for farm entry  All workers or visitors must wash hands All workers or visitors must wash hands and feet with soap before entering the chicken house  All workers or visitors must change or cover clothes and footwear before entering the chicken house (wear farm’s clothes)  All workers or visitors must clean and disinfect footwear between sheds by usingisinfect footwear between sheds by using a footbath or change footweara footbath or change footwear Prevent contact of poultry inside the chicken house with diseases agents that might be carried from the outside on people hands cloth or footwearon people hands, cloth or footwear
24. Annex at the chicken house entrance with dirty and clean sidey Chicken shed Shoes Clean area Soap and water Dirty area F d y Farm yardDoor
25. Only essential visitors allowed on farmOnly essential visitors allowed on farm such as: veterinarian and service man. never allowed in: chicken/duck & eggs dealers Visitors allowed in under strict conditions ( h h f l th t i t d t t ) Disease Control Area STOP (wash, change of cloths, restricted movement, etc) Help us maintain flock health Please keep out Prevent contact of poultry inside the chicken house with people from the Phone: ——–_____________ chicken house with people from the outside that might carry disease on their hands, cloth or footweartheir hands, cloth or footwear
26. Conducting farm businessConducting farm business Selling live birdsSelling live birds  Transport poultry offsite to poultry dealers  Transfer to poultry dealers at your farm gatep y y g (do not let the dealer on your farm)  Transport to a live bird market  Sell directly from the farm gateSell directly from the farm gate (do not let people in) Selling eggs  Sorting the eggs into flats to be taken off the farm (using plastic vs. paper flats)  Never bring paper egg flats back from the market to the farm Never bring paper egg flats back from the market to the farm  If selling eggs directly from the farm, sell them at the farm gate (do not let people in)( )
27. Only essential vehicles and equipment allowed on farmy  Vehicles should be left outside the farm area – might allowed into the farm in special condition following strict washing and disinfectionfollowing strict washing and disinfection – parked at least 30 mt from the house O l i l i f i ll d i h f Only essential pieces of equipment allowed into the farm following strict washing and disinfection F i ti bFumigation box
28. 4 S ti bi d b i4 S ti bi d b i4. Separating birds by species4. Separating birds by species Never keep together in the same house orNever keep together in the same house or same farmsame farm birds of different speciesbirds of different species f l hi k d d kf l hi k d d kfor example: chickens and ducks or geesfor example: chickens and ducks or gees Remember!Remember! Waterfowls are often a silent carrierWaterfowls are often a silent carrier of Avian Influenza or Newcastle virusof Avian Influenza or Newcastle virus
29. 55 All in all out management system single age55. All-in all-out management system = single age  Don’t add new birds to a flock  Prevent spread of diseases from age group to another on the same farm (due to differentto another on the same farm (due to different health and immunological status)  Allow simultaneous depopulation of facilities between flocks and periodical clean-up and disinfection of all h d i t t d i f tihouses and equipment to reduce infectious pressure or to break the cycle of disease
30. 6 Fence + gate + warning signs6. Fence + gate + warning signs Fence around the farm + gate + warning signsFence around the farm + gate + warning signs to control the movement into the farm of people, vehicles, equipment and other animals that might carry diseases into the farm from the outside Disease Control Area Help us maintain flock health STOP Please keep out Phone: ——–_____________
31. 77 K i i i di t b t lt fK i i i di t b t lt f7.7. Keeping minimum distance between poultry farmsKeeping minimum distance between poultry farms  Keeping minimum distance between poultry farmsKeeping minimum distance between poultry farms  When there are number of farms in a short distance,When there are number of farms in a short distance, there is a possibility to form a cluster of farms with good coordination,there is a possibility to form a cluster of farms with good coordination, all birds are placed and marketed at the same time = single ageall birds are placed and marketed at the same time = single age  Keeping minimum distance between poultry farm and LBMKeeping minimum distance between poultry farm and LBM Keeping minimum distance between poultry farm and LBMKeeping minimum distance between poultry farm and LBM Prevent or reduce the spread of diseasesPrevent or reduce the spread of diseases from infected to healthy birdsfrom infected to healthy birds Q
32. B. Cleaningg Cleaning of housing, vehicles and equipment is the next most effective step, cleaning remove 80% of contaminants When all dirt is removed, there is little organic material left in which disease agent may be protected and carriedin which disease agent may be protected and carried Cleaning means that the surfaces of the object must be visiblyg j y clean with no dirt left that is visible to the eye Cl i d ff t bbi b hi d hi hCleaning needs effort – scrubbing, brushing and high pressure washing with detergent and water
33. What should be cleaned and whenWhat should be cleaned and when You should ensure regular cleaning before entering into the farm:  vehicles and equipment (syringes, de-beakers, egg trays)  cloths and footwear  workers and visitors hands and feet You should ensure regular cleaning at the farm:  equipment used on farm (drinkers, feed pans, egg trays)  workers cloths and footwear workers cloths and footwear  workers hands in between jobs You should ensure cleaning between flocksYou should ensure cleaning between flocks  poultry house (inside & outside) and equipment Q
34. C. Disinfection Di i f ti i th l t li bl t f bi it d d th lit fDisinfection is the least reliable step of biosecurity, depends on the quality of cleaning, water hardness, etc. might kill any remaining contaminationkill any remaining contamination To achieve effective disinfection you must ensure:  removal of all dirt during the cleaning process  usage of only approved disinfectant  preparation of disinfectant solution in correct concentration preparation of disinfectant solution in correct concentration  application of disinfectant in the correct volume to ensure effective contact time and to cover the entire surface  preparation and application of disinfectant in a safe manner
35. What should be disinfected and whenWhat should be disinfected and when You should ensure disinfection before entering into the farm  vehicles and equipment (syringes, de-beakers, egg trays, etc) You should ensure disinfection between flocksYou should ensure disinfection between flocks  poultry house (inside & outside) and equipment
36. Quiz Time 1. segregation & traffic control, cleaning and disinfection are the 31. segregation & traffic control, cleaning and disinfection are the 3 elements of biosecurity.elements of biosecurity. a true or b falsea true or b falsea. true or b. falsea. true or b. false 2. when washing poultry house and equipment you should2. when washing poultry house and equipment you should first, remove organic matter with detergent and thenfirst, remove organic matter with detergent and then apply disinfectantapply disinfectantapply disinfectantapply disinfectant a. true or b. falsea. true or b. false 3. when working on farm you should never wash your hands3. when working on farm you should never wash your hands a. true or b. falsea. true or b. false 3636 a ue o b a sea ue o b a se
37. Identifying biosecurity risks Exercise Identifying biosecurity risks In a moment, we will show you pictures of a farm  Note each biosecurity risk that you see  How many risks have you identified?
38. What to observe where are the high risk points  Introducing New birdsIntroducing New birds  Pets and otherPets and other Introducing New birdsIntroducing New birds  PeoplePeople  EquipmentEquipment  Pets and otherPets and other animalsanimals  InsectsInsects EquipmentEquipment  VehiclesVehicles  Wild birdsWild birds InsectsInsects  WaterWater  FeedFeedWild birdsWild birds  RodentsRodents  Dead birds disposalDead birds disposal
39. 1.Introduction of new birds  Introduction ofIntroduction of diseaseddiseased birdsbirds Don’t add new birds to a flock, but if you do so, keep in mind the risks  Introduction ofIntroduction of diseaseddiseased birds.birds.  Introduction of “healthy” birds which incubate or haveIntroduction of “healthy” birds which incubate or have Introduction of healthy birds which incubate or haveIntroduction of healthy birds which incubate or have recovered from a disease but might berecovered from a disease but might be carriers/shedderscarriers/shedders of virus or bacteriaof virus or bacteria Precautions:Precautions:  Isolate and quarantine all new in-coming stock for minimum period of 2 weeks in isolation shed/cage that should be far away as possible from thethat should be far away as possible from the resident birds  Observe these birds for any sign of sicknessy g
40. 2 People2 People2. People2. People  Highly mobileHighly mobile C i fC i f di t t d it d i Carriers ofCarriers of disease agents presented in:presented in:  feathersfeathers  droppingsdroppings droppingsdroppings  exudatesexudates On contaminatedOn contaminated — clothingclothingOn contaminatedOn contaminated clothingclothing — footwearfootwear 4141
41. P tiP tiPrecautions:Precautions:  Minimize your visits to other farms.Minimize your visits to other farms. ** Never visit other farms duringNever visit other farms duringgg disease outbreakdisease outbreak!!  Limit the entry of visitors to your farm.Limit the entry of visitors to your farm. Permit only essential visitsPermit only essential visitsyy  Keep set of coverall and bootsKeep set of coverall and bootseep set o co e a a d bootseep set o co e a a d boots for visitors (servicemen,for visitors (servicemen, veterinarian, electrician, etc).veterinarian, electrician, etc).veterinarian, electrician, etc).veterinarian, electrician, etc). 4242
42.  Disinfect footwear between sheds in a footbathDisinfect footwear between sheds in a footbath Disinfect footwear between sheds in a footbath.Disinfect footwear between sheds in a footbath. Remember to:Remember to: rere fresh the solution daily!fresh the solution daily!– rere–fresh the solution daily!fresh the solution daily! — use a brush to remove dirtuse a brush to remove dirt AlternativelyAlternatively K tK t Keep separateKeep separate boots or sandals (color coded)boots or sandals (color coded) f h hi k hf h hi k hfor each chicken housefor each chicken house 4343
43. 3. Equipment3. Equipmentq pq p  MobileMobile  Carriers ofCarriers of disease agentsg PrecautionsPrecautions  Wash & disinfect equipment before and after useWash & disinfect equipment before and after useWash & disinfect equipment before and after useWash & disinfect equipment before and after use  Be especially careful with:Be especially careful with: borrowed and contractors equipmentborrowed and contractors equipmentborrowed and contractors equipmentborrowed and contractors equipment — vaccinatorsvaccinators — debeakersdebeakers egg trays that return from marketegg trays that return from market
44. 4 Vehicles4 Vehicles4. Vehicles4. Vehicles Such as:Such as:  Chick delivery vansChick delivery vans  Feed trucksFeed trucks  Pick up & egg trucksPick up & egg trucks  VisitorsVisitors Are Highly MobileAre Highly Mobile Carriers ofCarriers of disease agents on:on:  WheelsWheels  Under the bottom of the vehicleUnder the bottom of the vehicle
45. PrecautionsPrecautions  Limit the entry of vehicles to your farmLimit the entry of vehicles to your farm Limit the entry of vehicles to your farmLimit the entry of vehicles to your farm (only in essential cases)(only in essential cases)  Wash and disinfect vehicle’s wheels andWash and disinfect vehicle’s wheels and bottombottom By:By: — vehicles deepvehicles deep — high pressure sprayershigh pressure sprayershigh pressure sprayershigh pressure sprayers  Parked at leastParked at least 3030 mt from housemt from house
46. 5 Wild birds Carriers of:Carriers of: 5. Wild birds Carriers of:Carriers of:  Viruses:Viruses: Avian InfluenzaAvian Influenza– Avian InfluenzaAvian Influenza — Newcastle DiseaseNewcastle Disease  Bacteria:Bacteria: Bacteria:Bacteria: — SalmonellaSalmonella M lM l– MycoplasmaMycoplasma Might infect your chicken byMight infect your chicken by — direct contactdirect contact t i ti f f dt i ti f f d– contamination of feed orcontamination of feed or water with droppings andwater with droppings and exudatesexudatesexudatesexudates
47. P tiP ti Bird proof netting PrecautionsPrecautions Bird proof netting  Wild birds proof houseWild birds proof house –– screen or netscreen or net Cl f d ill i di t lCl f d ill i di t l Clean feed spills immediatelyClean feed spills immediately around feed storage roomaround feed storage room and chicken houseand chicken house  Keep feed storage room cleanKeep feed storage room clean d d l t ll tid d l t ll tiand door close at all timeand door close at all time
48. 6. Rodents6. Rodents  Are carriers ofAre carriers of disease agents contaminating feed and litter withcontaminating feed and litter withgg — SalmonellaSalmonella — Fowl CholeraFowl Cholera  Cause damage to equipmentCause damage to equipment — Electrical wireElectrical wire — Plastic water pipesPlastic water pipes Enlarged wattles in Fowl Cholera
49. P tiP tiPrecautionsPrecautions R il f t h d th f ( hi hR il f t h d th f ( hi h Remove piles of trash around the farm (which serve as aRemove piles of trash around the farm (which serve as a breeding area for rodents)breeding area for rodents)  Remove vegetation near by the houseRemove vegetation near by the house  Clean all feed spillsClean all feed spills  Place and rotate baits and traps around the poultry housePlace and rotate baits and traps around the poultry house regularlyregularlyregularlyregularly
50. 7. Pets and other animals7. Pets and other animals7. Pets and other animals7. Pets and other animals  Dogs cats and pet birds are carriersDogs cats and pet birds are carriers Dogs, cats and pet birds are carriersDogs, cats and pet birds are carriers of infectious agents such as:of infectious agents such as:  Salmonella (in faces)Salmonella (in faces)( )( )  Fowl Cholera (in saliva)Fowl Cholera (in saliva)  PsittacosisPsittacosis  NewcastleNewcastle PrecautionsPrecautions M k th lt h tM k th lt h t ff tt Make the poultry houses petMake the poultry houses pet–proofproof –– screen or netscreen or net 5151
51.  Other farm animals like cattle, buffalos, goats, etc,Other farm animals like cattle, buffalos, goats, etc, raised on poultry farmraised on poultry farm I i t lik t d fli fI i t lik t d fli f Increase in pests like: rats and flies on farmIncrease in pests like: rats and flies on farm  Increase in disease agents concentration on farmIncrease in disease agents concentration on farm like: Salmonella Campylobacter Choleralike: Salmonella Campylobacter Choleralike: Salmonella, Campylobacter, Cholera,like: Salmonella, Campylobacter, Cholera, endangering the poultry populationendangering the poultry population PrecautionsPrecautions  Make the poultry housesMake the poultry housesMake the poultry housesMake the poultry houses animalanimal–proofproof –– screen, netscreen, net  Fence the poultry areaFence the poultry areap yp y
52. 8. Insects8. Insects  carriers of disease agents for example:carriers of disease agents for example: carriers of disease agents for example:carriers of disease agents for example:  MosquitoesMosquitoes Fowl poxFowl pox  Darkling beetle Newcastle diseaseDarkling beetle Newcastle disease BursalBursal diseasediseaseBursalBursal diseasedisease MarekMarek DiseaseDisease HPAIHPAIHPAIHPAI SalmonellaSalmonella and many moreand many moreand many moreand many more  FliesFlies SalmonellaSalmonella FliesFlies SalmonellaSalmonella 5353
53. PrecautionsPrecautions  Mow grass around houses regularlyMow grass around houses regularly  Prevent water build up around shedsPrevent water build up around sheds flies glue trap in Indonesia  Remove all potential larval food materialsRemove all potential larval food materials such as: animal manuresuch as: animal manure rotting mulchrotting mulch bird carcassesbird carcasses  Spray insecticide between batchesSpray insecticide between batches Note! Ducks are highly sensitive toNote! Ducks are highly sensitive to parathion and diazinong yg y
54. 9. Water9. Water C t i t d t b b di d fC t i t d t b b di d f Contaminated water can be a breeding ground for:Contaminated water can be a breeding ground for: — Avian InfluenzaAvian Influenza N tl diN tl di– Newcastle diseaseNewcastle disease — ColiformsColiforms — SalmonellaSalmonella — OtherOther disease agents  Water leakage causes wet litterWater leakage causes wet litter — Increases the possible challenge of CoccidiosisIncreases the possible challenge of Coccidiosis — Damages to leg’s skin allowingDamages to leg’s skin allowing penetration of bacteria causing foot pad and jointpenetration of bacteria causing foot pad and joint inflammationinflammationinflammationinflammation 5555
55. P tiP tiPrecautionsPrecautions Use onl good q alit clean ater (tap or deep ells)Use onl good q alit clean ater (tap or deep ells) Use only good quality clean water (tap or deep wells)Use only good quality clean water (tap or deep wells)  Surface water of dams ponds and rivers must beSurface water of dams ponds and rivers must be Surface water of dams, ponds and rivers must beSurface water of dams, ponds and rivers must be treated by:treated by: Filtration or sedimentation + ChlorinationFiltration or sedimentation + ChlorinationFiltration or sedimentation + ChlorinationFiltration or sedimentation + Chlorination  Add iodine solution weekly to the water tank andAdd iodine solution weekly to the water tank andAdd iodine solution weekly to the water tank andAdd iodine solution weekly to the water tank and drinking system (drinking system (00..0505% active) to prevent algae% active) to prevent algae and other contaminants buildup in the pipesand other contaminants buildup in the pipes  Keep drinking system free from leakageKeep drinking system free from leakage
56. 10. Feed10. Feed B t i l t i ti f t i lB t i l t i ti f t i l Bacterial contamination of raw materialsBacterial contamination of raw materials  SalmonellaSalmonella W t f d it d l t f f i d ldW t f d it d l t f f i d ld Wet feed permits development of fungi and moldsWet feed permits development of fungi and molds for example:for example:  Aspergillus pneumoniaAspergillus pneumonia  Mycotoxins like: Afla, Ochra, T2Mycotoxins like: Afla, Ochra, T2 — Internal hemorrhagesInternal hemorrhages — Stunted growthStunted growth — *Immunosupression*Immunosupression
57. P tiP tiPrecautionsPrecautions B l d lit f d th t t th h h t t t tB l d lit f d th t t th h h t t t t Buy only good quality feed that went through heat treatmentBuy only good quality feed that went through heat treatment  Feed storageFeed storage t b k t l d t ll ti t tt b k t l d t ll ti t t– must be kept closed at all times to preventmust be kept closed at all times to prevent contamination by rodents and wild birdcontamination by rodents and wild bird roof m st be kept leakage freeroof m st be kept leakage free– roof must be kept leakage freeroof must be kept leakage free  Feed pans must be cleaned oftenFeed pans must be cleaned often F d d i k t t d i i t f dF d d i k t t d i i t f d Foggers and drinkers must not drip into feed pansFoggers and drinkers must not drip into feed pans 5858
58. 1111. Dead bird disposal. Dead bird disposal  Dead birds present a risk to the rest of the flock, due toDead birds present a risk to the rest of the flock, due to increase of disease agents load at the farmincrease of disease agents load at the farm
59. PrecautionsPrecautions  Remove dead birdsRemove dead birds as soon as possibleas soon as possible  Dispose dead birds in a safe way byDispose dead birds in a safe way by :: — CompostingComposting I i tiI i ti– IncineratingIncinerating — Deep burial + LimeDeep burial + Lime Di tiDi ti– DigestionDigestion Never! • Eat or sell dead chickens• Eat or sell dead chickens • Dispose dead chickens into rivers, canals or lakes • Feed to dogs• Feed to dogs
60. Quiz Time 1 F h l h ld i l t i i bi d ?1 F h l h ld i l t i i bi d ?1. For how long should you isolate new incoming birds ?1. For how long should you isolate new incoming birds ? a. 2 days b. 1 week c. 2 weeksa. 2 days b. 1 week c. 2 weeks 2. Never visit other farms during disease outbreak2. Never visit other farms during disease outbreak a. true or b. falsea. true or b. false 3. You should provide all visitors with coverall and boots3. You should provide all visitors with coverall and boots a. True or b. falsea. True or b. false 4. Wild birds might be carriers of viruses like Avian Influenza or4. Wild birds might be carriers of viruses like Avian Influenza or Newcastle DiseaseNewcastle DiseaseNewcastle DiseaseNewcastle Disease a. True or b. falsea. True or b. false
61. Quiz Time 5. The best way to fight rodents is by5. The best way to fight rodents is by a. removing piles of trasha. removing piles of trash b cleaning all feed spillsb cleaning all feed spillsb. cleaning all feed spillsb. cleaning all feed spills c. placing and rotating baits around the poultry housec. placing and rotating baits around the poultry house d. All of the aboved. All of the above 6. The best way to dispose dead birds in a safe way is by6. The best way to dispose dead birds in a safe way is by a compostinga compostinga. compostinga. composting b. incineratingb. incinerating c. deep burial + limec. deep burial + limepp d. all of the aboved. all of the above
62. Di iDiscussion • What are the biggest challenges to adopting• What are the biggest challenges to adopting biosecurity practices for smallholders? • What do you think are the most important practices? • Which ones will be the easiest to adopt? • What are your ideas about how to work with smallholders to get them to adopt some of these practices?practices? • Who should train small producers?Who should train small producers?
63. What do you think ?What do you think ? 1. What are the 3 most important points you want to remember from this presentation that are important for you to achieve better health and performance at your farm?better health and performance at your farm? 2. What additional information do you need on this topic?2. What additional information do you need on this topic?


Post time: May-11-2017
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